Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles, Theory and Practice--Volume 1: Noise Sources; Volume 2: Noise Control

Harvey H. Hubbard, Editor

Published in 1994; Originally Published in 1991


Table of Contents to Volume 1

Table of Contents to Volume 2

VOLUME 1 CONTENTS

Preface

Technical Reviewers

Symbols

1.   Propeller and Propfan Noise - B. Magliozzi, D.B. Hanson, and R.K. Amiet

Introduction
Description of Propellers
Propeller Noise Characteristics
Propeller Noise-Generating Mechanisms
Prediction Methods for Propeller Harmonic Noise
Prediction Methods for Propeller Broadband Noise
Propagation Effects
Comparisons of Predictions and Measurements
Propeller Noise Control Objectives
Control of Propeller Noise
Synchrophasing
References

2.   Rotor Noise - F.H. Schmitz

Introduction
Rotorcraft Noise sources and Their Physical Origins
Some Measured Data
Scaling Rotor Noise
Theoretical Developments and Experimental Verification
Rotorcraft Acoustic Design Trends
References

3.   Turbomachinery Noise - John F. Groeneweg, Thomas G. Sofrin, Edward J. Rice, and Phillip R. Gliebe

Introduction
Process Description: Theory
Mechanism Identification: Experiment
Application of Theory and Experiment to In-Flight Sources
Full-Scale Engine Applications
Concluding Remarks
References

4.   Jet Noise Classical Theory and Experiments - G.M. Lilley

Introduction
Lighthill's Theory of Aerodynamic Noise
The Effects of Convection
The Spectrum of Aerodynamic Noise
The Structure of a Turbulent Jet
The Acoustic Analogy Source Model in Jet Noise
Jet Noise at Subsonic Speeds
Experimental Considerations
Jet Noise Reduction Techniques
Alternative Theories of Aerodynamic Noise
Conclusions
References

5.   Noise From Turbulent Shear Flows - M.E. Goldstein

Introduction
Solid-Surface Effects
Sound Generated by Turbulence Interacting With Itself: The Jet Noise Problem
Extensions to More Complex Turbulent Flows
Supersonic Flows
References

6.   Jet Noise Generated by Large-Scale Coherent Motion - Christopher K.W. Tam

Introduction
Large Turbulence Structures and Instability Waves
Characteristics of Supersonic Jet Noise
Turbulent Mixing Noise Generated by Large Turbulence Structures and Instability Waves of Supersonic Jets
Theories of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise
Generation and Prediction of Screech Tones
Noncircular Supersonic Jets
Acoustically Excited Jets
Additional Topics
References

7.   Airframe Noise - David G. Crighton

Introduction
Overview of Experimental Results
Whole Aircraft Correlations
Trailing-Edge Noise
Flap Side-Edge Noise
Undercarriage Gear Noise
Cavity Noise
Turbulent Boundary Layer and Panel Vibration Noise
Noise of Powered-Lift Configurations
Development of a Comprehensive Prediction Scheme
Conclusions
References

8.   Propulsive Lift Noise - Martin R. Fink

Introduction
Description of Propulsive Lift Vehicles
Experimental Observations of Propulsive Lift Noise
Noise Mechanisms and Underlying Physical Concepts
Prediction Methods
Comparisons
Full-Scale Implementations
References

9.   Combustion and Core Noise - J. Robert Mahan and Allen Karchmer

Introduction
Configuration Variables
Operational Variables
Characteristics of Combustion and Core Noise
Sources of Combustion Noise
Introduction to Combustion Noise Theory
Combustion Noise Theory and Comparison With Experiment
Available Prediction Methods
Diagnostic Techniques
Reciprocating-Engine Combustion Noise
References

10.   Sonic Boom - Domenic J. Maglieri and Kenneth J. Plotkin

Introduction
Nature of Sonic Booms
Role of the Atmosphere
Review and Status of Theory
Measurements and Predictions
Sonic Boom Minimization
Responses to Sonic Booms
Summary
References

Glossary of Terms

Index

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CONTENTS Volume 2

Technical Reviewers

Symbols

11.   Human Response to Aircraft Noise - Clemans A. Powell and James M. Fields

Introduction
Perception of Sound
Noise Metrics for Predicting Human Response
Laboratory Assessment of Human Response
Field Assessment of Human Response
Noise Regulations, Criteria, and Recommended Practices
References

12.   Atmospheric Propagation - Tony F.W. Embleton and Gilles A. Daigle

Introduction
Geometrical Spreading
Effects Due to the Presence of the Ground
Refraction by Vertical Gradients of Wind and Temperature
Atmospheric Turbulence
Discussion
Diffraction
Large-Amplitude Waves, Pulses, and Sonic Booms
Standards
References

13.   Theoretical Models for Duct Acoustic Propagation and Radiation - Walter Eversman

Introduction
The Acoustic Field Equations
Propagation in Uniform Ducts With Hard Walls
Attenuation Calculations in Lined Uniform Ducts
Solution of the Eigenvalue Problem
Nonuniform Ducts
References

14.   Design and Performance of Duct Acoustic Treatment - R.E. Motsinger and R.E. Kraft

Orientation
Design Approach
Fundamentals of Duct Liner Technology
Empirical and Semiempirical Design Methods
Recommendations for Further Research
References

15.   Jet Noise Suppression - P.R. Gliebe, J.F. Brausch, R.K. Majjigi, and R. Lee

Introduction
Theoretical Concepts of Jet Noise Generation and Suppression
Jet Noise Suppression Concepts
Summary
References

16.   Interior Noise - John S. Mixson and John F. Wilby

Introduction
Sources of Interior Noise
Airborne Noise
Structure-Borne Noise
Source-Path Identification
Noise Control Application
References

17.   Flyover-Noise Measurement and Prediction - Noel A. Peart, M.J.T. Smith, B. Magliozzi, Harry Sternfeld, and the Boeing Noise Engineering Organization

Introduction
Measurement of Noise Produced by Airplanes Powered by Turbofan Engines
Measurement of Helicopter Noise
Factors Influencing Sound Propagation (Full-Scale Static and Flight Testing)
Prediction of Noise for Airplanes Powered by Turbofan Engines
Prediction of Noise for Airplanes Powered by Propellers or Propfans
References

18.   Quiet Aircraft Design and Operational Characteristics - Charles G. Hodge

Scope
Airplane Noise Level Design Requirements and Objectives
Major Design Considerations
Major Operational Considerations
The Design and Development Process
Noise Engineering of Other Flight Vehicles
References

Glossary of Terms

Index

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Preface to Volumes 1 and 2

The field of aeroacoustics has matured dramatically in the past two decades. Researchers have gained significant theoretical and experimental understanding of the noise generated by aircraft power plants and their components. In addition, airframe noise and interior noise have been investigated extensively. The physical understanding obtained from these efforts has resulted in the development of hardware capable of reducing community noise and of meeting strict noise certification requirements. Reductions in overall sound pressure level of 20 to 30 dB have been obtained for some types of power plants, while in the same period their installed power has increased significantly.

Current quiet flight vehicle designs are based on information reported in a multitude of journals, conference proceedings, research reports, and specialized books. Each of these scientific publications represents only incremental steps in the evolution of our present understanding of the various aeroacoustic noise generation and propagation mechanisms and procedures for noise control. There is thus a need for a reference document summarizing the current status of aeroacoustics. It is recognized that some other fine books on aeroacoustics are already available. The reader is referred to the classic handbooks by Harris on noise and vibration control; to Goldstein's "Aeroacoustics," which provides a general theoretical treatment of most aeroacoustic noise sources; to the text "Noise and Acoustic Fatigue in Aeronautics" by Richard and Mead; and to the AIAA Preprint Series volume entitled "Aerodynamic Noise." The current book represents an attempt to integrate and update the information in previous related publications, to provide a balanced viewpoint with both fundamental and applied aspects being considered, and to focus on those topics that are significant for the design and operation of quiet flight vehicles.

In July 1982, the Continuing Education Subcommittee of the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Aeroacoustics Technical Committee identified a critical need for a reference book summarizing and interpreting the status of research in aeroacoustics. The full Aeroacoustics Technical Committee agreed with this conclusion and enthusiastically supported the concept of publishing such a book. The book would have a scope consistent with that of the Technical Committee and would include physics of noise produced by motion of fluids and bodies through the atmosphere and by chemical reaction processes; it would also include the responses of human beings, structures, and the atmosphere to aerodynamic noise. The subcommittee was then instructed to prepare an initial outline of the book for planning purposes and to procure financial support for its printing. This effort has been given generous support by the Langley, Lewis and Ames Research Centers of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the U.S. Air Force Wright Research and Development Center; and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command.

This book is planned as a reference publication, easily readable by persons with scientific or engineering training who have completed a bachelor degree study program. It serves as an authoritative resource book for teachers, students, and researchers, but it is not designed for use directly as a textbook. It provides recommended methodology to evaluate aeroacoutics-related problems and suggests approaches to their solutions, without extensive tables, nomographs, and derivations. It is oriented toward flight vehicles and emphasizes underlying physical concepts. Theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects are covered, including the main formulations, and comparisons of theory and experiment.

The preparation of the material for this book has been carried out under the general supervision of the AIAA Technical Committee on Aeoracoustics. The Committee elected the editor (Harvey H. Hubbard), two associate editors (Christopher K.W. Tam and Robert H. Schlinker), and six additional editors (Charles E. Feiler, James C. Yu, Walter K. Eversman, Marvin E. Goldstein, Robert E. Kraft, and Yung H. Yu). Donald L. Lansing and John Laufer (until his untimely death) also served for short terms. They functioned as an editorial board to establish the overall policy for the organizing reviewing, and editing of the book. Each was selected because of his expert knowledge of at least one of the specialty areas covered in the book. They collectively comprise a team of experts who represent industry, government, and academia viewpoints.

The editorial board members chose by vote the lead authors for each chapter based on their stature and expertise in particular technical areas and on their proven ability to communicate. In all cases, contributing authors were selected and enlisted by the lead authors and on the basis of the same criteria. An outline of each chapter was first approved by the editorial board as a means of defining the overall scope of that chapter. Technical reviewers were chosen by vote of the editorial board based on their expertise of subject matter and the nature of their experience. Two to four persons were selected to provide technical reviews for each manuscript. These technical reviews were then provided to the appropriate authors as a basis for the preparation of their final manuscripts. Final editing was accomplished by Mary K. McCaskill and Thomas H. Brinkley of the NASA Langley Research Center Technical Editing Branch. This latter effort involved skilled technical editors closely associated with the publication profession. Their work included checking for accuracy, grammar, consistency of style, compliance with editorial instructions, and assembly for printing.

Authors and reviewers contributed their time for this project without receiving compensation. Draft manuscript preparation, typing, and graphics were supported partially or wholly by the participant's employer. All these contributions were vital to the success of this project and are greatly appreciated.

Supporting reference information cited in this book is limited to publications available at the time of the text preparation. No proprietary or classified information is included in order to protect the interests of authors' companies and governments. In order to enhance its utility, this book is divided into two volumes, each of which has a list of symbols, an index, and a separate glossary of terms. Reference lists for each chapter contain the key available supporting documents.

Volume 1 includes all the chapters that relate directly to the sources of flight vehicle noise: Propeller and Propfan Noise; Rotor Noise; Turbomachinery Noise; Jet Noise Classical Theory and Experiments; Noise From Turbulent Shear Flows; Lift Noise; Combustion and Core Noise; and Sonic Boom. Volume 2 includes those chapters that relate to flight vehicle noise control and/or operations: Human Response to Aircraft Noise; Atmospheric Propagation; Theoretical Models for Duct Acoustic Propagation and Radiation; Design and Performance of Duct Acoustic Treatment; Jet Noise Suppression; Interior Noise; Flyover-Noise Measurement and Prediction; and Quiet Aircraft Design and Operational Characteristics.

This book was published initially in August 1991 as NASA Reference Publication 1258, Vols. 1 and 2, and with a companion United States Air Force Wright Research and Development Center designation as Technical Report 90-3052, Vols. 1 and 2. It was printed in soft cover and carried the appropriate NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Army logos on its covers.

In November 1993, the Acoustical Society of America agreed to reprint it in a hard-cover version but with modifications to the covers and title pages and with minor changes and corrections to the text. Elaine Moran of the Acoustical Society of America and Andrew Prince of the American Institute of Physics have coordinated the preparation of materials for this reprinting.


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