4th Joint Meeting
Acoustical Society of America and
Acoustical Society of Japan
Sheraton Waikiki Hotel
Honolulu, Hawaii
28 November--2 December 2006

The 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan will be held Tuesday through Saturday, 28 November—2 December 2006 at the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Registration will open on Monday, 27 November, at 1:00 p.m.



The Sheraton Waikiki Hotel is the headquarters where most technical sessions will be held. Some technical sessions and social events will be held at The Royal Hawaiian which is adjacent to the Sheraton Waikiki. ASA has also reserved room blocks at The Royal Hawaiian, the Sheraton Moana Surfrider and the Princess Kalauani hotels. Reservations may be made by phone or online as noted below. Early reservations are strongly recommended. Note that the special ASA meeting rates are not guaranteed after 24 October 2006. You must mention the Acoustical Society of America when making your reservations to obtain the special ASA meeting rates.

ASA will compile a list of people who wish to share an hotel room and its cost. To be listed, send your name, telephone number, e-mail address, gender, smoker or nonsmoker preference, to the Acoustical Society of America, preferably by e-mail:
asa@aip.org or by postal mail to Attn.: Room Sharing, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502. The responsibility for completing any arrangements for room sharing rests solely with the participating individuals.


The hotel features a fitness center, two swimming pools, twenty gift and specialty shops and Keiki Aloha Children's Program. See www.sheraton-waikiki.com/ for further details.

In-room amenities include: Iron and ironing board, in-room safe, hair dryer, cable television, shampoo and conditioner, high-speed internet access, coffee maker, lanai

Please make your reservation directly with the Sheraton Waikiki. When making your reservation, you must mention the Acoustical Society of America to obtain the special ASA meeting rates.

Sheraton Waikiki Hotel
2255 Kalakaua Avenue
Honolulu, HI 96815-2571
Tel.: 808-922-4422
Fax: 808-923-8785


Rates [in US dollars; Single/Double occupancy; plus state tax and accommodation tax]:

Note: The ASA room block at the Sheraton Waikiki is sold out. Rooms are still avaialble at the other hotels mentioned above. Please make your reservation directly with the Sheraton Waikiki (Note that you should call or use the online reservation link for the Sheraton Waikiki to make reservations at the other three hotels mentioned above). When making your reservation, you must mention the Acoustical Society of America to obtain the special ASA meeting rates.

$159.00 – City View
$170.00 – Mountain View
$190.00 – Partial Ocean View
$210.00 – Ocean Front View
$60.00 – Extra person in room (after 2 people)

Rooms at other nearby hotels are also available. Reservations at these hotels may be made by contacting the Sheraton Waikiki by phone or via the web as noted above:

The Princess Kaiulani - $125.00 City View; $135.00 Ocean View

Sheraton Moana Surfrider - $180.00

The Royal Hawaiian - $195.00

Rates are available 3 days prior and 3 days after the contracted dates, based upon availability.

Reservation cut-off date: 24 October 2006


Air [
www.hawaii.gov/dot/airports/index.htm]: Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is located on Oahu and is served by the following airlines: Air Canada, Air New Zealand, Air Pacific Airways, All Nippon Airways, Aloha Airlines, American Airlines, American Trans Air, China Airlines, Continental Air Micronesia, Continental Airlines, Delta Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, Korean Airlines, Japan Airlines, Japan Air Charter, JTB Aloha Service, Northwest Airlines, Philippine Airlines, Rich International, Quantas Airways, United Airlines.

Ground [www.hawaii.gov/dot/airports/visitor_info.htm]: Options for ground transportation include shuttle, car rental, taxi or public bus transportation.

Airport Waikiki Express provides transportation from the airport to any hotel in Waikiki. Operates 24 hours: Every 25-30 minutes between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. and every 20-25 minutes after 10:00 a.m. Fees: Adults (one-way)--$8.00; Adults (round-trip) - $14.00; Children 3 years old or younger ride free. Baggage - two (2) bags per person--no fee; any bag over the (2) per person limit--$3.00

Car Rental: Most major car rental companies have rental counters at the Honolulu International Airport located in the baggage claim area.

Taxi: AMPCO Express (808) 861-8294. AMPCO Express is the managing contractor of the Airport's Open Taxi System at Honolulu International Airport. Taxi Service is available on the center median fronting the terminal baggage claim areas. See the taxi dispatchers (white shirts & blue vests with a yellow stripe, and the wording "TAXI" in black & white lettering on the front) for service. The fare from the airport to Waikiki during non-rush hour periods is approximately $25--$35.

Public Transportation - City "TheBus" Service: (808) 848-4500 Customer Service; (808) 848-5555 Route Information. Arrival Times: City Buses arrive approximately every 30 minutes depending on route number. Bus stops are in located in front of the Interisland Terminal and Lobbies 4 and 7 of the main terminal. Fees: Adults: $2.00; Children: under age 6 – free; 6 and older - $1.00.


A student transportation subsidies fund has been established to provide limited funds to students to partially defray transportation expenses to meetings. Students presenting papers who propose to travel in groups using economical ground transportation will be given first priority to receive subsidies, although these conditions are not mandatory. No reimbursement is intended for the cost of food or housing. The amount granted each student depends on the number of requests received. To apply for a subsidy, submit a proposal (e-mail preferred) to be received by 24 October to: Jolene Ehl, ASA, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502, Tel: 516-576-2359, Fax: 516-576-2377, E-mail:
jehl@aip.org. The proposal should include your status as a student; whether you have submitted an abstract; whether you are a member of ASA; whether you will travel alone or with other students; names of those traveling with you; and approximate cost of transportation.

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Messages for attendees may be left by calling the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel at Tel.: 808-922-4422 and asking for the ASA Registration Desk during the meeting, where a message board will be located. This board may also be used by attendees who wish to contact one another.


Registration is required for all attendees and accompanying persons. Only persons with registration badges will be admitted to the meeting rooms, Buffet Social on Wednesday, Banquet on Friday, and the Accompanying Persons Program. Registration will open on Monday, 27 November, at 1:00 p.m. in the Hawaii Ballroom Foyer on the 2nd floor of the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel. Checks or travelers checks in U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks and Visa, MasterCard and American Express credit cards will be accepted for payment of registration. Meeting attendees who have pre-registered may pick up their badges and registration materials at the pre-registration desk. To register use the
downloadable registration form or register online. If your registration is not received at the ASA headquarters by 4:00 p.m. EST on 31 October you must register on-site.

Registration fees are as follows:

                             		Preregistration by  	Registration after
Category                     		24 October            	24 October 

ASA/ASJ Members		            		$350                	$425      

ASA/ASJ Members One-Day    			$175                	$215

Nonmembers                    			$400                	$475

Nonmembers One-Day            			$200                	$240

Nonmember Invited Speakers
One Day Only			    		$0                  	$0

Nonmember Invited Speakers                  	$110			$110
More than one day
(Includes one-year ASA membership 
upon completion of an ASA application)

ASA/ASJ Student Members
with current ID cards)        			$0                  	$0

Student Nonmembers            			$40			$50
(with current ID cards)

Emeritus members of ASA/ASJ    			$50            	   	$75      
(Emeritus status pre-approved by ASA/ASJemeritus)

Accompanying Persons          			$50                 	$70
(Spouses and other registrants who 
will not participate in the technical 

Nonmembers who simultaneously apply for Associate Membership in the Acoustical Society of America will be given a $50 discount off their dues payment for the first year (2007) of membership. Invited speakers who are members of the Acoustical Society of America are expected to pay the registration fee, but nonmember invited speakers may register for one-day only without charge. A nonmember invited speaker who pays the full-week registration fee, will be given one free year of membership upon completion of an ASA application form.


Special note to students who pre-registered online: You will also be required to show your student id card when picking-up your registration materials at the meeting.


The ASA has purchased assistive listening devices (ALDs) for the benefit of meeting attendees who need them at technical sessions. Attendees with hearing loss are encouraged to take advantage of ALDs. To do so, ask at the ASA registration desk. If you have problems with an ALD return to the desk for help. Any attendee who will require an assistive listening device should advise the Society in advance of the meeting by writing to: Acoustical Society of America, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502; Email: asa@aip.org

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The technical program includes 125 sessions, with 1626 papers scheduled for presentation during the meeting.
Meeting room maps for the the Sheraton Waikiki and The Royal Hawaiian appear in the meeting program. Session Chairs have been instructed to adhere strictly to the printed time schedule, both to be fair to all speakers and to permit attendees to schedule moving from one session to another to hear specific papers. If an author is not present to deliver a lecture-style paper, the Session Chairs have been instructed either to call for additional discussion of papers already given or to declare a short recess so that subsequent papers are not given ahead of the designated times.

Several sessions are scheduled in poster format, with the display times indicated in the program schedule.


The first character is a number indicating the day the session will be held, as follows:
1-Tuesday, 28 November
2-Wednesday, 29 November
3-Thursday, 30 November
4-Friday, 1 December
5-Saturday, 2 December

The second character is a lower case ‘‘a" for a.m. or ‘‘p" for p.m. corresponding to the time of day the session will take place. The third and fourth characters are capital letters indicating the primary Technical Committee that organized the session using the following abbreviations or codes:

AA - Architectural Acoustics
AB - Animal Bioacoustics
AO - Acoustical Oceanography
BB - Biomedical Ultrasound/Bioresponse to Vibration
EA - Engineering Acoustics
ED - Education in Acoustics
ID - Interdisciplinary
MU - Musical Acoustics
NS - Noise
PA - Physical Acoustics
PP - Psychological and Physiological Acoustics
SA - Structural Acoustics and Vibration
SC - Speech Communication
SP - Signal Processing in Acoustics
UW - Underwater Acoustics

In sessions where the same group is the primary organizer of more than one session scheduled in the same morning or afternoon, a fifth character, either lower-case "a," "b," or "c" is used to distinguish the sessions. Each paper within a session is identified by a paper number following the session-designating characters, in conventional manner. As hypothetical examples: paper 2pEA3 would be the third paper in a session on Wednesday afternoon organized by the Engineering Acoustics Technical Committee; 3pSAb5 would be the fifth paper in the second of two sessions on Thursday afternoon sponsored by the Structural Acoustics and Vibration Technical Committee.

Note that technical sessions are listed both in the calendar and the body of the program in the numerical and alphabetical order of the session designations rather than the order of their starting times. For example, session 3aAA would be listed ahead of session 3aAO even if the latter session began earlier in the same morning.


The meeting will start with an opening plenary session on Tuesday, 28 November, in Session 1aID at 8:00 a.m.
Two plenary talks will be presented, one by Dr. Lawrence Crum from the ASA and the University of Washington, and another by Prof. Masayuki Morimoto from the ASJ and Kobe University.

Dr. Crum's talk is entitled "Therapeutic Ultrasound." He will discuss applications of ultrasound in medicine including: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Professor Morimoto's talk is entitled "How can auditory presence be generated and controlled?" He will discuss key results of many listening tests on auditory presence, especially auditory localization (AL) and auditory spatial impression (ASI). AL and ASI are the primary characteristics of auditory sensation associated with the acoustics of a space. This paper aims to explain the relationship between those auditory phenomena and the acoustic signals received by a human listener. The author gave the first demonstration that auditory localization in any direction can be simulated through two loudspeakers using head-related transfer functions (HRTFs).


Technical Committees will hold open meetings on Wednesday, and Thursday evenings at the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel. These are working, collegial meetings. Much of the work of the Society is accomplished by actions that originate and are taken in these meetings including proposals for special sessions, workshops and technical initiatives. All meeting participants are cordially invited to attend these meetings and to participate actively in the discussions. Times and rooms for each Committee meeting are given in the
schedule of committee meetings and other events.


Meetings of ANSI Accredited Standards Committees will not be held at this meeting. Standards advisory working groups will be held at the dates and times as listed in the
schedule of committee meetings and other events.

Meetings of selected advisory working groups are often held in conjunction with Society meetings and are listed in the calendar or on the standards bulletin board in the registration area, e.g., S12/WGI8-Room Criteria. People interested in attending and in becoming involved in working group activities must contact the ASA Standards Manager for further information about these groups, or about the ASA Standards Program in general, at the following address: Susan Blaeser, ASA Standards Manager, Standards Secretariat, Acoustical Society of America, Suite 114E, 35 Pinelawn Road, Melville, NY 11747; Tel.: 631-390-0215; Fax: 631-390-0217; Email: asastds@aip.org.

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Morning coffee breaks will be held each day starting at 10:00 a.m.. All coffee breaks will be held in the Hawaii Ballroom Foyer on the 2nd floor of the Sheraton Waikiki. On Wednesday morning coffee will be provided in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel where two technical sessions are scheduled to be held.


The Ewa Room will be set up as an A/V preview room for authors convenience, and will be available on Monday from 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., Tuesday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and Saturday from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


The ASA has replaced its traditional at-meeting "Paper Copying Service" with an online site which can be found at
scitation.aip.org/asameetingpapers/. Authors of papers to be presented at meetings will be able to post their full papers or presentation materials for others who are interested in obtaining detailed information about meeting presentations. Submission procedures and password information have been mailed to authors with the acceptance notices.

Those interested in obtaining copies of submitted papers for this meeting and the immediate past meeting may access the service at anytime. No password is needed.


Computers providing e-mail access will be available adjacent to the registration area in the Hawaii Ballroom Foyer from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Tuesday through Saturday. The e-mail area will provide several desktop computers as well as connections for attendees' laptop computers.


A complimentary buffet social with cash bar will be held on Wednesday, 29 November, from 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. on the Royal Hawaiian Lawn outside the Royal Hawaiian Hotel.


A banquet will be held on Friday evening, 1 December. Banquet festivities will start at 6:30 p.m. in the Hawaii Ballroom Foyer on the second floor of the Sheraton Waikiki with a no-host social hour.

The banquet, starting at 7:00 p.m., features a seven-course Chinese dinner. The awards ceremony will be held at the banquet. There will be a special presentation on Hawaiian music as part of the entertainment. Tickets for the banquet cost $40 each (students $25). Banquet tickets are limited, and are not included in the registration fee. Banquet ticket sales will close at 5:00 p.m., Wednesday 29 November.


The awards ceremony will be held during the banquet on Friday evening, 1 December. The Distinguished Service Citation will be presented to Thomas D. Rossing, the Silver Medal in Noise will be presented to Alan H. Marsh, the Silver Medal in Physical Acoustics will be presented to Henry E. Bass, the Silver Medal in Psychological and Physiological Acoustics will be presented to William A. Yost and the Wallace Clement Sabine Medal will be presented to William J. Cavanaugh.

Certificates will be presented to the Fellows elected at the Providence meeting of the Society.


The ASA Education Committee provides a way for a student to meet one-on-one with a member of the Acoustical Society over lunch. The purpose is to make it easier for students to meet and interact with members at ASA meetings. Each lunch pairing is arranged separately. Students who wish to participate should contact David Blackstock, University of Texas at Austin, by email or telephone 512-343-8248 (alternative number 512-471-3145). Please give Dr. Blackstock your name, university, department, degree you are seeking (BS, MS, or PhD), research field, acoustical interests, and days you are free for lunch. The sign-up deadline is ten days before the start of the meeting, but an earlier sign-up is strongly encouraged. Each participant pays for his/her own meal.


An "icebreaker" for students is scheduled on Tuesday, 27 November, from 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. in the Niihau Room which will provide an opportunity for students to meet informally with fellow students and other members of the Acoustical Society.

The Student Reception will be held on Thursday, 30 November, from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. in the Regency Ballroom at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel. This reception, sponsored by the Acoustical Society of America and supported by the National Council of Acoustical Consultants, will provide an opportunity for students to meet informally with fellow students and other members of the Acoustical Society. All students are encouraged to attend, especially students who are first time attendees or those from smaller universities.

Students will find in their conference registration envelopes a small sticker to place on their name tags identifying them as students. Although wearing the sticker is not mandatory, it will allow for easier networking between students and other meeting attendees.
Students are encouraged to refer to the student guide, also found in their envelopes, for important program and meeting information pertaining only to students attending the ASA meeting. They are also encouraged to visit the official ASA Student Home Page at
www.acosoc.org/student/ to learn more about student involvement in ASA.


The Women in Acoustics luncheon will be held at 11:30 a.m. on Thursday, 30 November, in the Regency Ballroom at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel. Those who wish to attend must purchase their tickets in advance by 10:00 a.m. on Wednesday, 29 November. The fee is $20 for non-students and $5 for students.

The Committee on Women in Acoustics is sponsoring a Young Investigator Travel Grant to help with travel costs associated with presenting a paper at the Honolulu meeting. This award is designed for young professionals who have completed the doctorate in the past five years (not currently enrolled as a student), who plan to present a paper at the Honolulu meeting. Each award will be of the order of $300. It is anticipated that the Committee will grant a maximum of three awards. Applicants should submit a request for support, a copy of the abstract they have submitted for the meeting and a current resume/vita which provides information on their involvement in the field of acoustics and to the ASA to: Dr. Donna L. Neff, Boys Town National Research Hospital, 555 North 30th Street, Omaha NE 68131; Tel.: 402-452-5069; Fax: 402-452-5027; Email:
neff@boystown.org. Deadline for receipt of applications is 10 October.


The Sheraton Waikiki provides free child care in its "Children's Center" for guests of all Sheraton Hotels in Waikiki. The Center programs varied activities, from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., for children ages 5 to 12. A "Convention Care" program is available from 6:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. by request for an hourly fee. See
www.sheraton-waikiki.com/ for further details.


Attendees should be aware that December is a "big wave" season in Hawaii. While waves of 10 to 30 feet are exhilarating to watch, their reach on the beach can be treacherous. We lose a few visitors each year due to lack of respect for the ocean. Swimmers should be aware that stinging jellyfish may reduce the pleasure of a winter swim. Please observe lifeguard warnings and any cautionary notices posted at beaches.

All attendees are cautioned not to carry significant amounts of cash with them, not to carry handbags on their sides next to a street, and not to leave possessions unattended, particularly at beaches or in vehicles parked at beaches and tourist viewpoints. While people generally are quite safe in their persons, Honolulu is a tourist center, and there is a crime element that targets tourists. It is not impolite to refuse solicitations and police should be called if people become too aggressive. Young children should not be left alone in hotel rooms.


Spouses and other visitors are welcome at the Honolulu meeting. The registration fee for accompanying persons is $50 (preregistration to 24 October) and $75 thereafter. A hospitality room for accompanying persons will be open in the Niihau Room at the Sheraton Waikiki, from 8:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., Tuesday through Friday (not open on Saturday), where information about activities in and around Honolulu will be provided. There will be a short program daily lasting for about 1 hour and will include activities such as lei making, hula demonstration and history, and other presentations of general interest.

Tourism is the major industry of the State of Hawaii and there are many sites to see, activities to participate in and places to shop. Some examples of interesting sites to visit:

Polynesian Cultural Center on the North Shore of Oahu, about an hour's drive from Waikiki. See re-creation of Pacific Island villages and demonstration of cultural activities. There is an admission price. See the hotel concierge.

Iolani Palace in downtown Honolulu is the only Royal Palace in the United States and was built by Hawaiian King David Kalakaua. The restored palace and its furnishings are on display. Guided tours must be reserved in advance and an admission fee is required. For more information call 522-0832 or see the hotel concierge.

USS Arizona and USS Bowfin at Pearl Harbor. A must see for first-time visitors. USS Missouri on Ford Island, a part of the Pearl Harbor environment, is a restored battleship on which the surrender documents ending WWII were signed.

Hanauma Bay is the place for you if you ever dreamed of swimming in an aquarium full of fishes. This is the favorite and popular spot for snorkeling in the whole State. Admission is $5/per person (closed on Tuesdays). Go early and take lots of sun screen.

The Diamond Head hike in the crater of Diamond Head consists of climbing 99 step stairs plus a spiraling staircase and another set of stairs to a WWII vintage outpost with a commanding view of Waikiki.

The Pali lookout is a windy site easily reached by automobile with a breathtaking view of the windward side of Oahu and the beach town of Kailua and Kaneohe.

Ala Moana Shopping Center is the first shopping center opened in Hawaii and is the most prestigious of all shopping centers in the State. It is located on the town end of Waikiki.

Aloha Stadium swap meet is a place to obtain bargain prices for a wide variety of new items. It is open on Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday, 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. This is the place to get all your souvenirs for your family and friends back home.


Weather on all of the Hawaiian Islands is very consistent, with only minor changes in temperature throughout the year. This is due to year-round warm sea surface temperatures, which keep the overlying atmosphere warm as well. In practical terms, there are only 2 seasons: the summer months (called Kau in Hawaiian) that extend from May to October and the winter months (Ho'oilo) that run from November to April. The average daytime summer temperature at sea level is 85 degrees F. (29.4 C) while the average daytime winter temperature is 78 degrees F. (25.6 C). Temperatures at night are approximately 10 degrees F. lower. For additional information on Honolulu's weather, visit [


Anthony A. Atchley, ASA Technical Program Chair; Yōiti Suzuki, ASJ Technical Program Chair, Dezhang Chu, Acoustical Oceanography; Tomonari Akamatsu, Whitlow W.L. Au, Animal Bioacoustics; David L. Adams, Hiroshi Sato, Architectural Acoustics; John S. Allen, Biomedical Ultrasound/ Bioresponse to Vibration; Takayuki Arai, William A. Yost, Education in Acoustics; Shoji Makino, Timothy Leishman, Engineering Acoustics; Shigeru Yoshikawa, Musical Acoustics; Timothy F. Noonan, Kerrie Standlee, Hiro Takinami, Noise; Henry E. Bass, Jun Kondoh, Junichi Kushibiki, Physical Acoustics; Yoshitaka Nakajima, William A. Yost, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics; John C. Burgess, Yoshifumi Chisaki, Signal Processing in Acoustics; Victoria Anderson, Sadaoki Furui, Keikichi Hirose, Amy Schafer, Speech Communication; Dean Capone, Hiro Takinami, Structural Acoustics and Vibration, Todd R. Beiler, Martin Siderius, Underwater Acoustics.


ASA: Whitlow W.L. Au, General Chair; Anthony A. Atchley, Technical Program Chair; Timothy F. Noonan, Audio/Visual; Dorothy E. Au, Accompanying Persons Program; Marc O. Lammers, Signs/Publicity; John S. Allen, Meeting Room Coordinator; David L. Adams, Food; Paul E. Nachtigall, Posters; Todd R. Beiler, Banquet Entertainment; Neal Frazer, Special Affairs; William Friedl, Public Relations; John C. Burgess, Consultant.

ASJ: Sadaoki Furui, General Chair; Yōiti Suzuki, Technical Program Chair; Hiroshi Sato, Technical Program Secretary.


Photographing and recording during regular sessions are not permitted without prior permission from the Acoustical Society.


Smoking is prohibited indoors.


This meeting program is Part 2 of the November 2006 issue of The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Corrections, for printer's errors only, may be submitted for publication in the Errata section of the Journal.


A. Preparation of Visual Aids
1. See the guidelines for computer projection below.
2. Allow at least one minute of your talk for each slide or other visual aid, e.g., no more than 12 slides for a 15-minute talk.
3. Minimize the number of lines of text and the number of curves shown on one visual aid. More than 12 lines of text or 5 curves are too many to be comprehended within one minute. Too little is better than too much.
4. On a transparency for overhead projection, all material should be within an 8x9-inch (20x23 cm) frame. Characters should be at least 0.2 inches (5 mm) high to be legible when projected; conventional 10- or 12-font characters are too small.
5. Text for 35-mm slides may be prepared using 10- or 12-pitch font, but the overall frame size of the typed material before reproduction should be no larger than 4x6 inches (10x15 cm). In general, characters in any visual aid should have a height at least 1/40 of the total frame height. In order that a 35-mm slide be legible when projected in an average size room, the slide itself should be legible when held 10 inches (25 cm) in front of the eye.
6. Make symbols no less than 1/3 the height of a capital letter. Break away any line that would otherwise pass through a character or symbol.
7. Black lines on clear background or white lines on black background are more legible than colored lines. Use color only if required to distinguish different curves or elements.
8. On each slide put a ‘‘thumb mark'' on the corner that is the upper right-hand corner when the slide is viewed inverted, so that on later projection the image is upright. Number the slides in order of presentation, on or beside the ‘thumb mark.'' 9. Video tapes must be in the standard VHS format. Videotapes not in the standard VHS format must be converted to this format by the individual presenter prior to the meeting.
B. Presentation
1. Organize your talk with introduction, body, and summary or conclusion. Include only facts or concepts that can be explained adequately in the allotted time. Rehearse talk so you can confidently deliver it in that time.
2. Session Chairs have been instructed to adhere to the time schedule and to stop your presentation if you run over.
3. An A/V preview room will be available for viewing computer presentations, transparencies or videotapes before your session starts.
4. Arrive early enough so that you can meet the session chair, load your computer presentation on to the computer provided, check your slides in the projector, and familiarize yourself with the microphone, slide controls, laser pointer, and other equipment.
5. Every time you display a slide the audience needs time to interpret it. Although you are familiar with the data, the audience may not be. Describe the abscissa, ordinate, units, and the legend for each curve. If the shape of a curve or some other feature is important, tell the audience what they should observe in order to grasp the point. They won't have time to figure it out for themselves.
C. References
1. Hubbard, H.H. ‘‘Guidelines for the planning and preparation of illustrated technical talks,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60, 995--998 (1976).
2. Young, R.W. ‘‘On presenting a technical paper,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 1086--1087 (1977).


A board approximately 8 ft. wide x 4 ft. high will be provided for the display of each poster paper. Supplies will be available for attaching the poster material to the display boards. Each board will be marked with the board location number. Note that the board location number may not correspond with the abstract number. Authors should furnish, as part of their poster presentation, a sign giving the abstract number, paper title and author(s) name, in lettering approximately 1-1/2 inch high. Free-hand lettering with a felt pen is entirely adequate.

A poster paper should be able to ‘‘stand alone,'' that is, be understandable even if the author is not present to explain, discuss, and answer questions. This is highly desirable because the author may not be present for the entire time the poster papers are on display, and when the author is engaged in discussion with one person, others may want to study the display without interrupting an ongoing dialogue. To meet the ‘‘stand alone'' criteria, it is suggested that authors consider the following elements for a poster. Each element can be arranged on one or more standard letter-size sheets. Where typing is needed, large font type is very effective. Careful hand lettering, at least 1/4 in. high, is also acceptable. Obviously, it may not be appropriate for any given paper to include all of the ‘‘elements'' listed below. These are merely suggestions:

1. Objective, purpose, goal, etc.
2. Background information. Prior work.
3. Assumptions, etc.
4. Experimental arrangements, block diagram, sketch, photos, parameters.
5. Outline of the theoretical development.
6. Data, graphs, tables, etc.

Graphs and photographs should be a minimum of 8x10 inches. Figure captions are essential. Avoid glossy paper. Display objects, such as transducer elements or materials, demonstration tapes, etc., are excellent supplements to a poster. Since the poster paper is not archival, feel free to bring incompletely reduced data for discussion.


A PC computer with audio playback capability and projector will be provided in each meeting room on which all authors who plan to use computer projection should load their presentations. Authors should bring computer presentations on a CD or USB drive to load onto the provided computer and should arrive at the meeting rooms at least 30 minutes before the start of their sessions. Assistance in loading presentations onto the computers will be provided.
Note that only PC format will be supported so authors using Macs must save their presentations for projection in PC format. Also, authors who plan to play audio during their presentations should insure that their sound files are also saved on the CD or USB drive.
Presenters also have the option to connect their own laptops to the computer projector as was done at past ASA meetings. The following guidelines should be observed by speakers presenting Power Point or equivalent presentations at meetings of the Acoustical Society of America who plan to use their own computers in their presentations.
It is strongly recommended that overhead transparencies be brought to the session by speakers as backup.


It is essential that each speaker connect his/her own laptop to the computer projection system in the A/V preview room prior to session start time to verify that the presentation will work properly. Technical assistance is available in the A/V preview room at the meeting, but not in session rooms. Presenters whose computers fail to project for any reason will not be granted extra time.


1. Set your computer's screen resolution to 1024x768 pixels or to the resolution indicated by the AV technical support. If it looks OK, it will probably look OK to your audience during your presentation.
2. Use all of the available screen area. If a page in portrait orientation is displayed in landscape orientation computer projection, the two sides of the projected image will be blank, effectively shrinking the text size. All documents/figures should be created in landscape orientation with very thin margins, thereby making maximum use of the (limited) resolution of the computer projector.
3. No more than 2 graphs/plots/figures should be included on a single slide. Use large lettering for axis labels and bold fonts for the numbers. Remember that graphics can be animated or quickly toggled among several options: comparisons between figures may be made temporally rather than spatially.
4. Avoid thin fonts, including fonts with thin elements (e.g., the horizontal bar of the "e" may be lost because it is less than one pixel wide at the low resolution of the computer projector, thereby registering as a "c"). If using a thin font, make it bold to widen the minimum line width. Avoid thin lines which may look fine when viewed on the high screen resolution setting but will fade or disappear when a low screen resolution is set.
5. Contrasts must be enhanced in computer-projected documents for good visibility. Use dark backgrounds with lighter (contrasting) lettering, rather than white backgrounds with dark lettering. Avoid busy backgrounds, and keep text and figures simple and large.
6. Avoid the use of red, especially on purple or green backgrounds. People with common color blindness will not see figures in red if they are backed by similar colors.
7. Avoid large borders and logos of institutions as these leave a reduced area for actual data and graphs. If such borders or logos are necessary, place them at the bottom of the slide so that your technical data appears at the top of the projected image.
8. Animations often run more slowly on laptops connected to computer video projectors than when not so connected. Test the effectiveness of your animations before your assigned presentation time on a similar projection system (e.g., in the A/V preview room). Avoid real-time calculations in favor of pre-calculation and saving of images.
9. If you will use your own laptop instead of the computer provided, a video switcher will be available. During the question and answer period of the previous speaker, connect your laptop to the video switcher. It is good protocol to initiate your slide show (e.g., run PowerPoint) immediately once connected, so the audience doesn't have to wait. When it is your turn to present, the session chair will press the button on the switcher corresponding to the appropriate number of the input to which you connected (indicated on the cord you plugged into your computer). If there are any problems, the session chair will endeavor to assist you, but it is your responsibility to ensure that the technical details have been worked out ahead of time.
10. During the presentation have your laptop running with main power instead of using battery power to insure that the laptop is running at full CPU speed. This will also guarantee that your laptop does not run out of power during your presentation.

Specific Hardware Configurations

Older Macs require a special adapter to connect the video output port to the standard 15-pin male DIN connector. Make sure you have one with you.
1. Hook everything up before powering anything on. (Connect the computer to the RGB input on the projector).
2. Turn the projector on and boot up the Macintosh. If this doesn't work immediately, you should make sure that your monitor resolution is set to 1024x768 for an XGA projector or at least 640x480 for an older VGA projector. (800x600 will most always work.). You should also make sure that your monitor controls are set to mirroring.
If it's an older powerbook, it may not have video mirroring, but something called simulscan, which is essentially the same.
Depending upon the vintage of your Mac, you may have to reboot once it is connected to the computer projector or switcher. Hint: you can reboot while connected to the computer projector in the A/V preview room in advance of your presentation, then put your computer to sleep. Macs thus booted will retain the memory of this connection when awakened from sleep. Alternatively, you can reboot while connected to the video switcher during the previous speaker's presentation, but it is safer to queue this up in advance of the session.
Depending upon the vintage of your system software, you may find that the default video mode is a side-by-side configuration of monitor windows (the test for this will be that you see no menus or cursor on your desktop; the cursor will slide from the projected image onto your laptop's screen as it is moved). Go to Control Panels, Monitors, configuration, and drag the larger window onto the smaller one. This produces a mirror-image of the projected image on your laptop's screen.
Also depending upon your system software, either the Control Panels will automatically detect the video projector's resolution and frame rate, or you will have to set it manually. If it is not set at a commensurable resolution, the projector may not show an image. Experiment ahead of time with resolution and color depth settings in the A/V preview room (please don't waste valuable time fiddling with your Control Panel settings during your allotted session time).

Make sure your computer has the standard female 15-pin DE-15 video output connector. Some computers require an adaptor.
Once your computer is physically connected, you will need to toggle the video display on. Most PCs use either ALT-F5 or F6, as indicated by a little video monitor icon on the appropriate key. Some systems require more elaborate keystroke combinations to activate this feature. Verify your laptop's compatibility with the projector in the A/V preview room. Likewise, you may have to set your laptop's resolution and color depth via the monitor's Control Panel to match that of the projector, which settings you should verify prior to your session.

Most Linux laptops have a function key marked CRT/LCD or two symbols representing computer versus projector. Often that key toggles on and off the VGA output of the computer, but in some cases, doing so will cause the computer to crash. One fix for this is to boot up the BIOS and look for a field marked CRT/LCD (or similar). This field can be set to Both, in which case the signal to the laptop is always presented to the VGA output jack on the back of the computer. Once connected to a computer projector, the signal will appear automatically, without toggling the function key. Once you get it working, don't touch it and it should continue to work, even after reboot.


For further information on any ASA meeting, or to obtain instructions for the preparation and submission of meeting abstracts, contact the Acoustical Society of America, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502; Telephone: 516-576-2360; Fax: 516-576-2377; E-mail: asa@aip.org

4–8 June 2007, Salt Lake City, Utah
27 November-1 December 2007, New Orleans, Louisiana
29 June-4 July 2008, Paris, France

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