The 147th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) will be held Monday through Friday, 24 28 May 2004 in New York, New York. This meeting marks the 75th Anniversary of the Acoustical Society of America. and will include the usual meeting events plus a variety of special events to celebrate this milestone in the Society's history. All Technical Sessions will be held at the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers. Some special events will be held at the Sheraton and others will be held in various locations as described below.




The Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers (811 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10019) is the headquarters hotel. The cut-off date for reserving rooms at special rates is 1 May 2004. Please contact the hotel directly at 800-223-6550 to make a reservation. Mention the Acoustical Society of America to obtain the special ASA meeting rtes: $199/single; $219/double plus tax.


New York is served by three airports handling service by over 100 domestic and international airlines: John F. Kennedy International (JFK), LaGuardia Airport (LGA) and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR). JFK and LaGuardia are located in the borough of Queens, New York and Newark-Liberty is located in Newark, New Jersey. Information for all three airports, including links to information about ground transportation, can be found on the Port Authority website: www.panynj.gov/aviation.html. Transportation from the airports to the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers is provided by shuttle, bus, or taxi. The AirTrain also connects JFK with New York City. Driving in Manhattan is not recommended.

SuperShuttle. $17 from Newark and JFK; $15 from LGA - 1-800-258-3826

New York Service Express Bus and Olympia Airport Express. Follow the signs for ground transportation for the New York Service Express Bus out of JFK and LaGuardia Airports. Buses operate from 6:15 a.m. to 11:10 p.m. every 15 30 minutes. The fare to Grand Central train station (42nd Street between Lexington and Fifth Avenues) is $10-$13. Transfers to the Sheraton (7th Avenue and 52nd Street) are available for an additional charge. Reservations for the return trip may be made by calling 212-875-8200.

Follow the signs for ground transportation for the Olympia Airport Express out of Newark Airport. The bus operates from 4:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. every 30 60 minutes. The fare to Grand Central train station is $11. Transfers to the Sheraton hotel are available for an additional charge. Reservations for the return trip may be made by calling 212-964-6233.

Taxis (with normal traffic). JFK: $35 plus tolls; LaGuardia: $19 $22 plus tolls; Newark: $45 $55. (Note that a 26% taxi fare increase is under consideration by New York City so these estimated fares may be not be accurate by the time of the meeting).

AirTrain from JFK only. This is a new service started in December 2003. AirTrain JFK connects the airport to the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) trains and MTA New York City Transit subways. Connecting to or from JFK with AirTrain costs $5.00 each way (children under 5 ride free). Payment is made at Howard Beach or Jamaica stations using a Pay-Per-Ride MetroCard . MetroCards can be purchased within the AirTrain system at Howard Beach and Jamaica stations, at subway and LIRR stations, and at MetroCard vendors throughout New York City. MetroCard Vending Machines accept cash (US currency only), credit cards, and debit cards. Credit and debit cards are not accepted at subway station booths. If you use LIRR, subway, or bus to get to or from the airport, you must pay the applicable fare. For more information, call 1-877-JFK-AIRTrain or visit the Port Authority website: www.panynj.gov/aviation.html.

Major car rental companies. Rental car counters are located adjacent to the airports' baggage claim areas. Note that car rental is not available at the terminals in Newark Airport. Use the Air Train parking lot P2 or P3. Parking at the Sheraton is $37 per day.


New York City is spread across five boroughs Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island that are linked by bridges, tunnels, subways, buses and ferries. The ASA meeting hotel is located in Manhattan which is an island, Brooklyn and Queens are located east of the hotel on the western tip of Long Island, the Bronx is to the north of Manhattan and Staten Island is to the southwest of Manhattan.

Traveling in Manhattan and the outer boroughs may be by walking, bus, subway and ferry. The bus and subway fare is $2.00 per ride. Exact fare is required on buses. Anyone planning to use buses or subways must purchase MetroCards which are available in a variety of options and may be purchased at subway stations, MetroCard vending machines, on MTA buses and are also available at some stores and shops in New York.

For information on traveling using New York public transportation see www.mta.nyc.ny.us.


To encourage student participation, limited funds are available to defray partially the cost of travel expenses of students to attend Acoustical Society meetings. Instructions for applying for travel subsidies are given in the Call for Papers which are mailed to ASA members for each meeting. The deadline for the present meeting has passed but this information may be useful in the future.


Messages for attendees may be left by calling the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers at 212-581-1000 and asking for the ASA Registration Desk during the meeting, where a message board will be located. This board may also be used by attendees who wish to contact one another.


Registration is required for all attendees and accompanying persons. Only persons with registration badges will be admitted to the meeting rooms, the Celebration at City Center, the Buffet Social on Thursday, and the Accompanying Persons Program.

Registration will begin on Sunday, 23 May, at 11:00 a.m. at the registration area in the Princess Ballroom on the second floor of the Sheraton. Checks or travelers checks in U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks and Visa, MasterCard and American Express credit cards will be accepted for payment of registration. Meeting attendees who have preregistered may pick up their badges and registration materials at the Preregistration Desk.

The registration fee is $400 for members of the Acoustical Society of America; $450 for nonmembers, $75 for Emeritus members of ASA (Emeritus status pre-approved by ASA); $75 for nonmember invited speakers, $35 for students with current id cards and $75 for accompanying persons. One-day registration is available at $200 for members and $225 for nonmembers. Nonmembers who pay the $450 nonmember registration fee and simultaneously apply for Associate Membership in the Acoustical Society of America will be given a $50 discount off their dues payment for 2004 dues (Full price for dues: $100).

Special note to students who preregistered Online: You will also be required to show your student id card when picking-up your registration materials at the meeting.


The ASA has purchased assistive listening devices (ALDs) for the benefit of meeting attendees who need them at technical sessions. Attendees with hearing loss are encouraged to take advantage of ALDs. To do so, ask at the ASA registration desk. If you have problems with an ALD return to the desk for help. Any attendee who will require an assistive listening device should advise the Society in advance of the meeting by writing to: Acoustical Society of America, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502; Email: asa@aip.org


The technical program has 101 sessions, with 1280 papers scheduled for presentation during the meeting.

Session Chairs have been instructed to adhere strictly to the printed time schedule, both to be fair to all speakers and to permit attendees to schedule moving from one session to another to hear specific papers. If an author is not present to deliver a lecture-style paper, the Session Chairs have been instructed either to call for additional discussion of papers already given or to declare a short recess so that subsequent papers are not given ahead of the designated times. Several sessions are scheduled in poster format, with the display times indicated in the program schedule.


The first character is a number indicating the day the session will be held, as follows:

1-Monday, 24 May
2-Tuesday, 25 May
Wednesday, 26 May - no technical sessions are scheduled on this day
4-Thursday, 27 May
5-Friday, 28 May

The second character is a lower case a'' for a.m., p'' for p.m. or e'' for evening corresponding to the time of day the session will take place. The third and fourth characters are capital letters indicating the primary Technical Committee that organized the session, using the following abbreviations or codes:

AA - Architectural Acoustics
AB - Animal Bioacoustics
AO - Acoustical Oceanography
BB - Biomedical Ultrasound/Bioresponse to Vibration
EA - Engineering Acoustics
ED - Education in Acoustics
ID - Interdisciplinary
MU - Musical Acoustics
NS - Noise
PA - Physical Acoustics
PP - Psychological and Physiological Acoustics
SA - Structural Acoustics and Vibration
SC - Speech Communication
SP - Signal Processing in Acoustics
ST - ASA Committee on Standards
UW - Underwater Acoustics

In sessions where the same Technical Committee is the primary organizer of more than one session scheduled in the same morning or afternoon, a fifth character, either lower-case a,'' b," "c" or "d" is used to distinguish the sessions. Each paper within a session is identified by a paper number following the session-designating characters, in conventional manner. As hypothetical examples: paper 2pEA3 would be the third paper in a session on Tuesday afternoon organized by the Engineering Acoustics Technical Committee; 4pSAb5 would be the fifth paper in the second of two sessions on Thursday afternoon sponsored by the Structural Acoustics and Vibration Technical Committee.

Note that technical sessions are listed both in the Calendar and the body of the Program in the numerical and alphabetical order of the session designations rather than the order of their starting times. For example, session 2aAA would be listed ahead of session 2aAO even if the latter session began earlier in the same morning.


Two Distinguished Lectures are scheduled. Jens Blauert of Ruhr University will present a Distinguished Lecture titled "Communication Acoustics," on Monday, 24 May, at 1:15 p.m. in Royal Ballroom A. Laymon N. Miller will present a Distinguished Lecture titled "Noise: My 62 Years of It," on Thursday, 27 May, at 1:15 p.m. in Royal Ballroom B.


A tutorial presentation titled "Listening to the Acoustics in Concert Halls" will be given by Leo L. Beranek and David Griesinger on Monday, 24 May, at 7:00 p.m. in New York Ballroom A of the Sheraton Hotel. This is the thirty-fourth in a series of Tutorial Lectures intended to provide attendees with some understanding and appreciation of areas of acoustical research other than their own specialties. A registration fee of $5 is charged to defray partially the lecture expenses (a Fellow has underwritten the cost of the registration fee). Only those who have pre-registered in advance of the meeting are assured of receiving copies of the lecture notes at the meeting


The Technical Committee on Architectural Acoustics and the National Council of Acoustical Consultants is sponsoring a student design competition to be judged and displayed at the meting.

The purpose of this design competition is to encourage students enrolled in architecture, Architectural Engineering, and other University curriculums that involve building design and/or acoustics to express their knowledge of architectural acoustics and building noise control in the schematic design of portions of a building where acoustical considerations are of primary importance.

The submitted designs will be judged by a panel of professional architects and acoustical consultants. An award of $1,000 will be made to the submitter(s) of the design judged "firsthonors." Four awards of $500 each will be made to the submitters of four entries judged "commendation." Entries will be on display in Session 1pAAb on Monday, 24 May, from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. in Imperial Ballroom B.


Technical Committees of the Acoustical Society of America will hold open meetings on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday evenings at the Sheraton Hotel. These are working, collegial meetings. Much of the work of the Society is accomplished by actions that originate and are taken in these meetings including proposals for special sessions and workshops. All meeting participants are cordially invited to attend these meetings and to participate actively in the discussions. Times and rooms for each Committee meeting are given in the schedule of Committee meetings.


The celebratory banquet will be held on Tuesday, 25 May, at 6:30 p.m. A filmed presentation of the Society's "Glorious Past" featuring the past presidents will be presented. Some special awards will be given and all present who have been members for 30 years or more will be honored.

A musical presentation will be part of the entertainment. The banquet cost is $75 per person (cash bar). Tickets may be purchased at the ASA registration desk until Monday at 5:00 p.m. subject to availability.


City Center Presentation
The celebration will begin at 8:30 a.m. at City Center (55th Street between Avenue of the Americas and 7th Avenue). There is no admission charge, but each person including spouses and guests, must wear a meeting registration badge. The festivities will start with the Plenary Session and Awards Ceremony.

The Gold Medal will be presented to Chester M. McKinney, the Helmholtz-Rayleigh Interdisciplinary Silver Medal will be presented to David Lubman, the R. Bruce Lindsay Award will be presented to Michael R. Bailey and the 2003 Silver Medal in Musical Acoustics will be presented to Johan E.F. Sundberg. Certificates will be presented to the Fellows elected at the Austin meeting of the Society.

After a brief "standing intermission," an extraordinary "Celebratory Look into the Future" will be presented.

At about 11:30 a.m. a demonstration of an advanced virtual orchestra will be featured. Twenty-four loudspeakers with tonal quality to match the acoustical instrument being emulated will be located in the orchestra pit of the theater. A computer operator will have complete real-time control over the orchestral dynamics and tempo. The computer operator and two singers will follow a professional conductor.

Fellows Reception
Immediately following the celebratory session, the College of Fellows will hold a reception for past and new ASA Fellows in the Mezzanine Lobby of City Center (second floor). Photos will be taken for the ASA archives. Champagne and cheese (no lunch) will be served. The cost is $25 per Fellow (each Fellow may bring one guest without charge). Tickets will be sold on a space available basis at the meeting as space is limited to 300 people. The reception is expected to last until 1:30 p.m.

Premier Tour - Circle Line Cruise
ASA has chartered a Circle Line cruise boat for a tour around Manhattan Island, with a tour guide, that lasts 3 hours and includes skyline views of Battery Park, Ellis Island, the Statue of Liberty, Wall Street, Brooklyn Bridge, Empire State Building, United Nations Buildings, Gracie Mansion, Yankee Stadium, the New Jersey Palisades and George Washington Bridge and more. Tickets cost $40 for adults and $25 for children, including round-trip bus transportation between the hotel and pier. The first bus begins loading at 1:30 p.m. and the boat sails promptly at 3:00 p.m. People will assemble in the lobby of the hotel at hand-held poster-position "A." Box lunches for registrants who have ordered them in advance will be held at the bus location; people who have ordered lunches should attempt to get on early buses. Tickets for the Circle Line Tour may be purchased on-site at the ASA Registration desk subject to availability.

Steinway Piano Factory Tour

A tour bus to the Steinway Piano Factory will leave from City Center at 1:30 p.m. The Steinway Factory is a very special and historical site. See their website at
www.steinway.com. The bus will return to the hotel at about 4:30 p.m. Box lunches for registrants who have ordered them in advance will be distributed on the bus. The cost of this tour is $60 and is limited to 44 participants. Tickets may be purchased on site at the ASA Registration desk subject to availability.

Organ Tour
A walking tour to two of New York's finest organs with demonstrations and performances will leave from the Sheraton at 2:00 p.m. and return at about 5:30 p.m. Participants should meet in the lobby of the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers at hand-held poster-position "B."

The first stop will be St. Peter's Lutheran Church at Lexington Avenue & 54th Street (at the Citicorp Building). The 1977 2-manual, 32-stop, 42-rank mechanical ("tracker") action Klais organ was built in Bonn, Germany and is a fine example of a thoroughly contemporary interpretation of historical organ building and design and craft.

The second stop will be the Episcopal Church of St. Mary the Virgin, on West 46th Street (between Broadway & Sixth Avenue). The 4-manual Aeolian-Skinner pipe organ, an early and highly successful example of the famed organ builder G. Donald Harrison's "American Classic" design, was built in 1932 with 59 ranks of pipes and extensively reworked by the same builder in 1942.

The cost of this tour is $50. Tickets may be purchased on site at the ASA Registration desk subject to availability.

Rose Planetarium Tour
A tour bus to the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the Museum of Natural History will leave from the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers at 3:30 p.m. Participants should meet in the lobby of the hotel at hand-held poster-position C. This tour features attendance at a regularly scheduled show in the Museum followed by a one-hour "behind the scenes" private tour conducted by the chief audio engineer. He will demonstrate the most complex multi-channel spatialized audio system and equally complex video computer system ever built. See their website at www.amnh.org/rose. The bus will return to the Sheraton at about 6:00 p.m. The cost of this tour is $60 and is limited to 44 participants. Tickets may be purchased on site at the ASA Registration desk subject to availability.

Organ Concert
A pipe organ concert will occur at the St. Thomas Episcopal Church, 53rd Street and 5th Avenue, a short 5 10 minute walk from the Sheraton, starting at 7:00 p.m. The concert is expected to last about one and one-half hours. There is no admission charge.

Other Tours Available through Tour Companies
New York City tours leave from a stop across the street from the Sheraton every 20 minutes. The most interesting tours offer passes good for 24 hours, that allow one to get on and off the bus and stop to see specific sights or to eat. If one stays on the bus, the tours take 2 to 3 hours to complete. For details refer to www.shop.viator.com or www.allnewyorktours.com. Cost by e-mail or at departure terminal is $39 to $49 for upper or lower Manhattan tours.


The film of ASA's 25th Anniversary Celebration in May 1954 has been transferred to DVD and will be available for viewing in Park Suite 5 on the fifth floor on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. A schedule of the events recorded on the film and appearances by prominent members of the Society will be provided so that attendees may schedule their viewing.


Meetings of ANSI Accredited Standards Committees will be held at this meeting on Tuesday, 25 May. Several Standards advisory working groups meeting are also scheduled.

Times and locations are listed in the schedule of standards committee meetings. People interested in attending and in becoming involved in working group activities must contact the ASA Standards Manager for further information about these groups, or about the ASA Standards Program in general, at the following address: Susan Blaeser, ASA Standards Manager, Standards Secretariat, Acoustical Society of America, Suite 114E, 35 Pinelawn Road, Melville, NY 11747, Tel: 631-390-0215 ; Fax: 631-390-0217; Email: asastds@aip.org.


Morning coffee breaks will be held Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday from10:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. in the Imperial Foyer A on the second floor.


Madison Suite 5 will be set up as an A/V preview room for authors' convenience, and will be available Monday through Thursday from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Authors of papers using 35 mm slides MUST arrange their slides in carousels before their presentation since it will not be possible to arrange slides during a session.


A new online website has been established by the Society for presenters to provide copies of their presentation materials and other information about their papers. The site will be available in early April. This new site may be accessed from the ASA Home Page asa.aip.org and following the link to the ASA Meeting Papers site. There will be no on-site paper copying service.

The ASA requests some authors to prepare lay-language versions of papers to be presented at meetings for the purpose of advertising the meeting to science writers. The papers for this meeting can be found on the ASA's World Wide Pressroom at www.acoustics.org/press about one month prior to the meeting.


Computers providing e-mail access will be available in Madison Suite 3 on the 5th floor from 9:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Monday, Tuesday and Thursday and 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon on Friday.


A complimentary buffet socials with cash bar will be held from 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. on Thursday evening in Imperial Ballroom A.


Spouses and other visitors are welcome at the New York meeting. The registration fee for accompanying persons is $75. A hospitality room for accompanying persons will be open Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday mornings from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Madison Suite 6 on the 5th floor throughout the meeting where information about activities in and around New York will be provided.

New York City's Official Visitors Information Center, 810 Seventh Avenue between 52nd an 53rd Streets, Tel.: 212-484-1222 is the source for information on everything there is to do and see in New York City including dining, shopping, sightseeing, cultural events, attractions, tours and transportation. The Center features free brochures, discount coupons to attractions and theaters, multilingual visitor information counselors and MetroCard vending machine.

Half-price tickets for theaters may be obtained on the day of the performance at the TKTS booth located at 7th Avenue and 47th Street.

Additional information may be found online at www.nycvisit.com.

Information about New York theaters and concerts may be obtained from Americana TicketsNY and tickets ordered in advance www.americanatickets.com The telephone number of their branch at the Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers is 212-397-0372.


The Education Committee has established a program for students to meet one on one with members of the Acoustical Society over lunch. The purpose is to make it easier for students to meet and interact with members at meetings. Each lunch pairing is arranged separately. Students who wish to participate may sign up by contacting David Blackstock, University of Texas at Austin, Mechanical Engineering Dept., 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712-0292; Tel.: 512-471-3145; Fax: 512-471-1045; Email: dtb@mail.utexas.edu. The information needed in order to arrange each pairing is the student's name, university, department, status (graduate student or undergraduate), research field, interests in acoustics, and days that are free for lunch. The sign-up deadline is one week before the start of the meeting, but an earlier sign-up is strongly encouraged. The cost of the meal is the responsibility of each participant.


New York generally enjoys nice spring weather in May, with average high temperatures of 75 degrees F and average lows of 55 degrees F with the possibility of spring showers.


Gary W. Elko, Chair; Ellen Livingston and Kyle Becker, Acoustical Oceanography; James Simmons and Robert Kull, Animal Bioacoustics; John Erdreich, Architectural Acoustics; Jeffrey Ketterling and Elisa Konofagou, Biomedical Ultrasound/ Bioresponse to Vibration; Victor Sparrow, Education in Acoustics; Gary Elko and Ilene Busch-Vishniac, Engineering Acoustics; Victor Sparrow, Musical Acoustics; Bennett Brooks and Brigitte Schulte-Fortkamp, Noise; Ronald Roy and E. Carr Everbach, Physical Acoustics; Glenis Long, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics; Geoffrey Edelson, James Preisig, Zoi-Heleni Michalopoulou, Signal Processing in Acoustics; Fredericka Bell-Berti and Laura Koenig, Speech Communication; Courtney Burroughs, Structural Acoustics and Vibration; James Preisig, Natalia A. Sidorovskaia, Underwater Acoustics.


Damian J. Doria and Russell Johnson, General Cochairs; Gary W. Elko, Technical Program Chair; Katharine Sawicki, Assistant to the Cochairs and Audio/Visual; Pam Brooks, Accompanying Persons Program; Konrad Kaczmarek, Signs; Dan Clayton, Technical Tours; Richard H. Campbell, Tours; Fredericka Bell-Berti, Education; Subha Maruvada, Photography and Jeffrey Ketterling, Poster Sessions.


Leo L. Beranek and Patricia K. Kuhl, Cochairs, Anthony A. Atchley, Fredericka Bell-Berti, Richard H. Campbell, William J. Cavanaugh, Dan Clayton, Lawrence A. Crum, Christopher J. Jaffe, and Francis Kirschner.


Photographing and recording during regular sessions are not permitted without prior permission from the Acoustical Society.


Smoking is prohibited indoors in New York City.


This meeting program is Part 2 of the May 2004 issue of The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Corrections, for printer's errors only, may be submitted for publication in the Errata section of the Journal.


A. Preparation of Visual Aids

1. Allow at least one minute of your talk for each slide or other visual aid, e.g., no more than 12 slides for a 15-minute talk.
2. Minimize the number of lines of text and the number of curves shown on one visual aid. More than 12 lines of text or 5 curves are too many to be comprehended within one minute. Too little is better than too much.
3. On a transparency for overhead projection, all material should be within an 8x9-inch (20x23 cm) frame. Characters should be at least 0.2 inches (5 mm) high to be legible when projected; conventional 10- or 12-font characters are too small.
4. Text for 35-mm slides may be prepared using 10- or 12-pitch font, but the overall frame size of the typed material before reproduction should be no larger than 4x6 inches (10x15 cm). In general, characters in any visual aid should have a height at least 1/40 of the total frame height. In order that a 35-mm slide be legible when projected in an average size room, the slide itself should be legible when held 10 inches (25 cm) in front of the eye.
5. Make symbols no less than 1/3 the height of a capital letter. Break away any line that would otherwise pass through a character or symbol.
6. Black lines on clear background or white lines on black background are more legible than colored lines. Use color only if required to distinguish different curves or elements.
7. On each slide put a thumb mark'' on the corner that is the upper right-hand corner when the slide is viewed inverted, so that on later projection the image is upright. Number the slides in order of presentation, on or beside the thumb mark.''
8. Video tapes must be in the standard VHS format. Videotapes not in the standard VHS format must be converted to this format by the individual presenter prior to the meeting.

B. Presentation

1. Organize your talk with introduction, body, and summary or conclusion. Include only facts or concepts that can be explained adequately in the allotted time. Rehearse talk so you can confidently deliver it in that time.
2. Session Chairs have been instructed to adhere to the time schedule and to stop your presentation if you run over.
3. An A/V preview room will be available for viewing slides, transparencies or videotapes before your session starts.
4. Arrive early enough so that you can meet the session chair and projectionist, check your slides in the projector, and familiarize yourself with the microphone, slide controls, laser pointer, and other equipment.
5. Every time you display a slide the audience needs time to interpret it. Although you are familiar with the data, the audience may not be. Describe the abscissa, ordinate, units, and the legend for each curve. If the shape of a curve or some other feature is important, tell the audience what they should observe in order to grasp the point. They won't have time to figure it out for themselves.

C. References
1. Hubbard, H.H. Guidelines for the planning and preparation of illustrated technical talks,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60, 995--998 (1976).
2. Young, R.W. On presenting a technical paper,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 1086--1087 (1977).


A board approximately 8 ft. wide x 4 ft. high will be provided for the display of each poster paper. Supplies will be available for attaching the poster material to the display boards. Each board will be marked with the board location number: Note that the board location number may not correspond with the abstract number. Authors should furnish, as part of their poster presentation, a sign giving the abstract number, paper title and author(s) name, in lettering approximately 1-1/2 inch high. Free-hand lettering with a felt pen is entirely adequate.

A poster paper should be able to stand alone,'' that is, be understandable even if the author is not present to explain, discuss, and answer questions. This is highly desirable because the author may not be present for the entire time the poster papers are on display, and when the author is engaged in discussion with one person, others may want to study the display without interrupting an ongoing dialogue. To meet the stand alone'' criteria, it is suggested that authors consider the following elements for a poster. Each element can be arranged on one or more standard letter-size sheets. Where typing is needed, large font type is very effective. Careful hand lettering, at least 1/4 in. high, is also acceptable. Obviously, it may not be appropriate for any given paper to include all of the elements'' listed below. These are merely suggestions:

1. Objective, purpose, goal, etc.
2. Background information. Prior work.
3. Assumptions, etc.
4. Experimental arrangements, block diagram, sketch, photos, parameters.
5. Outline of the theoretical development.
6. Data, graphs, tables, etc.

Graphs and photographs should be a minimum of 8x10 inches. Figure captions are essential. Avoid glossy paper.

Display objects, such as transducer elements or materials, demonstration tapes, etc., are excellent supplements to a poster.

Since the poster paper is not archival, feel free to bring incompletely reduced data for discussion.


The following guidelines should be observed by all speakers presenting Power Point or equivalent presentations at meetings of the Acoustical Society of America.


It is essential that each speaker connect his/her own laptop to the computer projection system in the A/V preview room prior to session start time to verify that the presentation will work properly. Technical assistance is available in the A/V preview room at the meeting, but not in session rooms. Presenters whose computers fail to project for any reason will not be granted extra time.

Computer projector resolution (e.g., 600 by 800 pixels) is typically lower than screen resolution, and, when viewed from the rear of a meeting room, the image will appear smaller than that of a computer screen viewed normally. The information provided below will enable you to create materials that will be suitable for meeting presentations.

It is strongly recommended that overhead transparencies be brought to the session by the speaker as backup.

1. Set your computer's screen resolution to 600 by 800 pixels or to the resolution indicated by the AV technical support. If it looks OK, it will probably look OK to your audience during your presentation.

2. Use all of the available screen area. If a page in portrait orientation is displayed in landscape orientation computer projection, the two sides of the projected image will be blank, effectively shrinking the text size. All documents/figures should be created in landscape orientation with very thin margins, thereby making maximum use of the (limited) resolution of the computer projector.

3. No more than 2 graphs/plots/figures should be included on a single slide. Use large lettering for axis labels and bold fonts for the numbers. Remember that graphics can be animated or quickly toggled among several options: comparisons between figures may be made temporally rather than spatially.

4. Avoid thin fonts, including fonts with thin elements (e.g., the horizontal bar of the "e" may be lost because it is less than one pixel wide at the low resolution of the computer projector, thereby registering as a "c"). If using a thin font, make it bold to widen the minimum line width. Avoid thin lines which may look fine when viewed on the high screen resolution setting but will fade or disappear when a low screen resolution is set.

5. Contrasts must be enhanced in computer-projected documents for good visibility. Use dark backgrounds with lighter (contrasting) lettering, rather than white backgrounds with dark lettering. Avoid "busy" backgrounds, and keep text and figures simple and large.

6. Avoid the use of red, especially on purple or green backgrounds. People with common color blindness will not see figures in red if they are backed by similar colors.

7. Avoid large borders and logos of institutions as these leave a reduced area for actual data and graphs. If such borders or logos are necessary, place them at the bottom of the slide so that your technical data appears at the top of the projected image.

8. Animations often run more slowly on laptops connected to computer video projectors than when not so connected. Test the effectiveness of your animations before your assigned presentation time on a similar projection system (e.g., in the A/V preview room). Avoid real-time calculations in favor of pre-calculation and saving of images.

9. A switch box will be provided at the session. Before the start of your paper, during the question and answer period of the previous speaker, connect your laptop to the video switcher. It is good protocol to initiate your slide show (e.g., run PowerPoint) immediately once connected, so the audience doesn't have to wait. When it is your turn to present, the session chair will press the button on the switcher corresponding to the appropriate number of the input to which you connected (indicated on the cord you plugged into your computer). If there are any problems, the session chair or a designated helper will endeavor to assist you, but it is your responsibility to ensure that the technical details have been worked out ahead of time.

10. Make sure you have a backup of your presentation on floppy, ZIP disk, PCMCIA memory card, or equivalent, in case your hard disk crashes or its files become corrupted. It is strongly recommended that overhead transparencies be brought to the session by the speaker as backup.

11. During the presentation have your laptop running with main power instead of using battery power to ensure that the laptop is running at full CPU speed. This will also guarantee that your laptop does not run out of power during your presentation.

Suggestions Regarding Specific Hardware Configurations


Older Macs require a special adapter to connect the video output port to the standard 15-pin male DIN connector. Make sure you have one with you.

1. Hook everything up before powering on.
2. Turn the projector on.
3. Boot up the Macintosh.

If this doesn't work immediately, you should make sure that your monitor resolution is set to 1024x768 for an XGA projector or at least 640x480 for an older VGA projector (800x600 will almost always work). You should also make sure that your monitor controls are set to mirroring. If it's an older powerbook, it may not have video mirroring, but something called "simulscan," which is essentially the same.

Depending upon the vintage of your Mac, you may have to reboot once it is connected to the computer projector or switcher. Hint: you can reboot while connected to the computer projector in the A/V preview room in advance of your presentation, then put your computer to sleep. Macs thus booted will retain the memory of this connection when awakened from sleep. Alternatively, you can reboot while connected to the video switcher during the previous speaker's presentation, but it is safer to queue this up in advance of the session.

Depending upon the vintage of your system software, you may find that the default video mode is a side-by-side configuration of monitor windows (the test for this will be that you see no menus or cursor on your desktop; the cursor will slide from the projected image onto your laptop's screen as it is moved). Go to Control Panels, Monitors, configuration, and drag the larger window onto the smaller one. This produces a mirror-image of the projected image on your laptop's screen.

Also depending upon your system software, either the Control Panels will automatically detect the video projector's resolution and frame rate, or you will have to set it manually. If it is not set at a commensurable resolution, the projector may not show an image. Experiment ahead of time with resolution and color depth settings in the A/V preview room (please don't waste valuable time fiddling with your Control Panel settings during your allotted session time).


Make sure your computer has the standard female 15-pin DIN video output connector. Some computers require an adaptor.

Once your computer is physically connected, you will need to toggle the video display on. Most PCs use either ALT-F5 or F6, as indicated by a little video monitor icon on the appropriate key. Some systems require more elaborate keystroke combinations to activate this feature. Verify your laptop's compatibility with the projector in the computer/video prep room. Likewise, you may have to set your laptop's resolution and color depth via the monitor's Control Panel to match that of the projector, which settings you should verify prior to your session (please don't waste valuable time adjusting your Control Panel settings during your allotted session time).


Most Linux laptops have a function key marked CRT/LCD or two symbols representing computer versus projector. Often that key toggles on and off the VGA output of the computer, but in some cases, doing so will cause the computer to crash. One fix for this is to boot up the BIOS and look for a field marked CRT/LCD (or similar). This field can be set to "Both," in which case the signal to the laptop is always presented to the VGA output jack on the back of the computer. Once connected to a computer projector, the signal will appear automatically, without toggling the function key. Once you get it working, don't touch it and it should continue to work, even after reboot.


For further information on any ASA meeting, or to obtain instructions for the preparation and submission of meeting abstracts, contact the Acoustical Society of America, Suite 1NO1, 2 Huntington Quadrangle, Melville, NY 11747-4502; Telephone: 516-576-2360; Fax: 516-576-2377; E-mail: asa@aip.org.

15 19 November 2004 San Diego, California, Town and Country Hotel
Deadline for receipt of abstracts: 26 July 2004

23 27 May 2005 - Vancouver, Canada

17 21 October 2005 - Minneapolis, Minnesota

Spring, 2006 - Providence, Rhode Island

Fall 2006 - Honolulu, Hawaii

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